The mentality of the hard core of the “born again Christians” is marked by a fundamentalism founded on literal interpretation of holy scripture. This. mindset, whether we encounter it in Islamic, Christian, Jewish or Hindu form, clashes with fundamental convictions, of modernity. The conﬂicts are sparked by the political level by the neutrality of the state towards worldviews, that is , by equal freedom of religion for all and by the emancipation of science from religious authority. Similar conﬂicts dominated large parts of modern European history; today they are being repeated not only in relations between the western and Islamic worlds, but also in those between militant groups of religious and secularized citizens within liberal societies. We can view these conﬂicts either as power struggles between state authority and religious movements or as conﬂicts between secular and religious convictions.